Linux Cheatsheet

File Commands

ls List the content of the current directory
ls -R List the subdirectories recursively
ls -a List all the content, including hidden files
ls -l List the content and its information
pwd Output the current directory that you are in
cd folder1 Change the working directory to folder1
cd Return to the $Home directory
cd .. Go up a directory
cd – Return to the previous directory
cp source destination Copy source to destination
cp -r source destination Copy a folder recursively from source to destination
mv source destination Move (or rename) a file from source to destination
rm file1 Remove file1
rm -f file1 Remove file1 without prompt
rm -r folder Remove a folder and its content recursively
mkdir foldername Create a new folder foldername
rmdir foldername Remove an empty folder
file file1 Show the file type of file1
cat file1 file2 Concatenate file1 to file 2
cat > file1 Concatenate standard input to file1
less file1 View and paginate file1
head file1 Show first 10 lines of file1
tail file1 Show last 10 lines of file1
chmod 777 file Change file permission of file to 777
chown user:group file Change ownership of file to user and group group
ln -s source destination Create a symbolic link from source to destination

File Encryption and Compression

gpg -c file Encrypt file
gpg file.gpg Decrypt file.gpg
tar -cf archive.tar foo bar Create archive.tar from files foo and bar
tar -xf archive.tar Extract all files from archive.tar.
gzip file1 Compress file1 and rename it to file1.gz
gzip -d file1.gz Decompress file1.gz

System Commands

uname -a Show system and kernel
head -n1 /etc/issue Show distribution
mount Show mounted filesystems
date Show system date
uptime Show system uptime
whoami Show your username
w Display who is online
man command Show manual for command
!! Repeat the last command
exit Log out of current session

File Searching Commands

grep pattern files Search for pattern in files
grep -i Case insensitive search
grep -r Recursive search
grep -v Inverted search
grep -o Show matched part of file only
locate file1 Find file1
whereis command Find binary/source/manual for command
which app Locate a command for the app
look string file1 Display any lines in file1 which contain string as a prefix.

Process Management

ps Show snapshot of processes
top Show real time processes
kill pid Kill process with id pid
pkill name Kill process with name name
killall name Kill all processes with names beginning name

Disk Space

df -h Show free space on mounted filesystems
du -h folder Show file usage of each folder in folder
du -sh folder Show the total file size of folder
fdisk -l Show disks partitions sizes and types (run as root)
free Show memory and swap usage

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